Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives - Nomenclature and Properties
Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxyl functional group (-COOH) and are characterized by their acidity and distinctive odor. Carboxylic acids are widely used in the chemical industry for the production of drugs, plastics, and food additives, among other applications. In this lesson, we will discuss the nomenclature and properties of carboxylic acids and their derivatives.
Carboxylic acids are named using the suffix -oic acid. The parent chain is the longest carbon chain that contains the carboxylic acid group. The numbering of the carbon atoms in the chain begins with the carboxyl carbon, which is assigned the number 1. If there are other functional groups present, they are named as prefixes and are listed in alphabetical order.
Carboxylic acids are acidic due to the presence of the carboxyl group. The carboxyl group can donate a proton to a base, resulting in the formation of a carboxylate ion. Carboxylic acids have higher boiling points than aldehydes and ketones due to the presence of hydrogen bonding between the molecules. Carboxylic acids are soluble in water due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between the carboxylate anions and water molecules.
Derivatives of Carboxylic Acids:
Carboxylic acids can be converted into different derivatives by substitution at the carboxyl group. The most common derivatives are acid halides, anhydrides, esters, and amides. Acid halides are formed by replacing the -OH group of a carboxylic acid with a halogen (-Cl, -Br, -I). Anhydrides are formed by removing a molecule of water from two carboxylic acid molecules. Esters are formed by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol, whereas amides are formed by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an amine.
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Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxyl functional group and are characterized by their acidity and distinctive odor. They are named using the suffix -oic acid, and their properties include high boiling points, solubility in water, and acidic behavior due to the presence of the carboxyl group. Carboxylic acids can be converted into different derivatives, including acid halides, anhydrides, esters, and amides.
Test Your Knowledge:
What is the suffix used to name carboxylic acids?
How is the parent name for carboxylic acids derived?